This unit comes in Small scale industry, even comes in startups sector defined bu PM Modi, India. There is a huge huge demand of this product throughout in India.
Light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconducting device that emits light when electrical current is applied to the device. LED is said to be the future light source because of their low energy usage and efficiency. The advantages of LEDs are that they are very robust, have a very long lifetime or up to 50,000 hours, they are easily dimmable and fail by dimming over time, rather than burn off like incandescent light bulbs. LEDs cause less glare irritation because of the smaller beam angle of the luminaire. LEDs are very common as indicator lights in electrical equipment and recently in higher power applications such as flashlights and artificial lighting. The colour of the light depends on the composition and condition of the semiconducting material used. It can be infrared, visible or ultraviolet. Blue, green and red LED can be used to produce most perceptible colours, including white.
Now a Days, after many years of development, the LEDs on the market are now emitting white light in different colour temperatures as well as an advanced RGB control to produce coloured light to capture different moods for various aspects. Because of the huge potential of LED technology and the constant improvements in the quality (e.g. colour rendering), it can be predicted that the use of LEDs will become more common in both homes and offices with the advantage of energy savings due to their efficiency and long lifetime. Another advantage of using LED is it does not contain Hg, which is not an eco-friendly chemical and has adverse effect on human body.
What is light emitting diode?
The pn junction diode, which is specially doped and made of special type of semiconductor, emits light when it is forward biased is called light emitting diode.
Working principle of light emitting diode
To understand the working principle of light emitting diode, we first have to understand a basic of quantum theory. According to this theory, when an electron comes down from its higher energy level to lower energy level, it emits energy in form of a photon. The energy of this photon is equal to the energy gap between these two energy levels. When a pn junction diode is forward biased, current flows through the diode. Flow of current through the semiconductor is caused by both flow of free electrons in opposite direction of current and flow of holes in the direction of current. Hence during flow of these charge carriers, there will be recombinations. Recombination mean electrons in condition band jump down to the valence band. During this jump electron will emit electromagnetic energy in form of photons whose energy is equal to forbidden energy gap Eg. Again according to quantum theory, energy of a photon is the product of frequency of electromagnetic radiation and Planck constant. Where h is Planck constant Again velocity of electromagnetic radiation is fixed and it is equal to the speed of light i.e. c. The frequency of radiation f is related to velocity of light as f = c / λ. Where λ is wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation. Hence from equation (1) So we have seen that wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is inversely proportional to the forbidden energy gap. In normal silicon, germanium semiconductor this forbidden energy gaps between condition and valence band are such that entire radiation of electromagnetic wave during recombinations is in the form of inferred radiation. The wavelengths of the inferred are out of our visible range so we can not see it. Inferred electromagnetic radiation is nothing but heat. This is because, silicon and germanium semiconductor are not direct gap semiconductor rather these are indirect gap semiconductor. In indirect gap semiconductor the maximum energy level of valence band and minimum energy level of conduction band do not occur at same momenta of electrons. Hence during recombinations of electrons and holes that is migration of electrons from conduction band to valence band the momentum of electrons would be changed.
LEDs are currently used for a wide variety of multiple applications such as: household lighting, aerospace industry, architectural, automotive, broadcasting, electronic instrumentation, entertainment and gaming, military, traffic and transportation. Since LEDs are focused lights they prove best at specific lighting tasks such as desk lamps, reading lights, night lights, security lights, spot lights, accent lights and lighting for signage.
Market: The overall general lighting demand in residential and commercial buildings is estimated as the ‘total lighting load’ or the ‘total wattage of lighting fixtures installed’ in the country. The scale of general lighting demand estimated in this report is about 41.54 GW. The residential buildings category contributes about 30.54 GW whereas the commercial buildings contribute 11 GW of this demand.
This project report forecasts the national lumen demand for general lighting service in teralumen-hours. The lumenhour demand in India is poised to increase by approximately 82% in residential buildings and 54% in commercial buildings over the next two decades. The project report covers Introduction, Process, market, Flow sheet, Capacity/day, Land and Building area with Cost, Details and Cost of Machinery, Raw Materials List with cost and suppliers addresses, Profitability Analysis, BEP, cash Flow Chart etc.
In this scenario of general lighting demand and expected growth in India, energy efficiency in lighting has the potential to achieve tremendous energy savings in the country. LED technology has been globally recognised as super-efficient and eco-friendly in comparison to conventional lighting technologies.
EIRI have recently prepared the detailed project report on
LED BULBS, TUBES, PANEL LIGHT, DOWN LIGHT, SPOT LIGHT, STREET LIGHT, FLOOD LIGHT AND BAY LIGHT MANUFACTURING, the product is having a great demand in India as well as export demand in other countries as it save power bill to every house, office and establishments.
Cap: 100 BULB, 100 TUBE LIGHT, 100 PANEL LIGHT, 100 DOWN LIGHT, 100 SPOTLIGHT, 100 STREET LIGHT,100FLOOD LIGHT & 100COB/DAY
Land and Building: Rs. 44 Lac
Machinery : Rs.3 Lacs
Project Cost: Rs. 96 Lacs
Rate of Return: 150%