Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattle hide. The tanning process converts the putrescible skin into a durable, long-lasting and versatile natural material for various uses.
Leather is an important material with many uses. Together with wood, leather formed the basis of much ancient technology. The leather industry and the fur industry are distinct industries that are differentiated by the importance of their raw materials. In the leather industry the raw materials are by-products of the meat industry, with the meat having higher value than the skin. The fur industry uses raw materials that are higher in value than the meat and hence the meat is classified as a by-product. Taxidermy also makes use of the skin of animals, but generally the head and part of the back are used. Hides and skins are also used in the manufacture of glue and gelatin.
Tanning is effected by treating the conditioned hides and skins with organic, inorganic or synthetic tanning agents, the most important among them being vegetable tanning materials and basic chromium sulphate. Basic salt of aluminium, Zirconium, and iron, formaldehyde, quinone, aliphatic sulphonyl chlorides, fish oils, and synthetic polymerized materials (Syntans) are used for the production of special leathers. Tanning is an ancient art practiced in India since long before the Christian era. Up to about 1857, the Indian leather industry remained a cottage industry confined mostly to the villages. The production of semi-finished leather for export was started in South India at about that time. In 1867, the Government established the Government Harness & Saddlery Factory at Kanpur to produce vegetable tanned leather by process followed in England. In 1881, another factory, cooper, Allen and Co. was set up at Kanpur to produce vegetable tanned leather required for military footwear. Experimented trials on the production. One of chrome tanned leather were started at Madras towards the beginning of the present Century, and a course of instruction in chrome tanning was introduced in the Government School of Arts, Madras. Students trained in this institution started chrome tanneries in Chennai, Kolkata and Kanpur.
The first chrome tannery was established at Madras in 1903. The tanning industry as it exists today comprises the following four sections: organised tanneries producing vegetables and chrome tanned leathers; small-scale tanneries producing chrome tanned shoe upper leathers; small-scale tanneries producing E.I. tanned and skins; and village tanneries producing vegetables tanned leather.
The leather industry occupies a unique position in the country as one of the major export earners-presently exporting to a tune of Rs. 1250 crores and expected to be about 1800 crores by the end of the current plan period. So far as the export of leather & leather products are concerned, our major market are the USA, and the EEC in the West and USSR and GDR in the Socialist Block of Countries.
India is rich in cattle wealth, buffallo, calf leather in India’s specialty leather. In India, there is abundance of traditional skills for the manufacture of leather products. At the time of independence in 1947. India’s exports of raw hides & skins is reduced. The potential of leather industry was perceived by the Govt. immediately after independence. The industry was given special attention. The skills for tanning & processing of leather were revived export of raw hides & skins was discouraged Tanning facilities sprung up in different parts of the country continuously.
Now India has a good presence in world markets, domestic requirement is mostly for the footwear industry and a very small quantity for the leather products industry.
Tanning & finishing industry in India is concentrated in Madras, Panipat, Ambur, Vaniambadi, Erode, Dindigul and Trichy in Tamilnadu, Calcutta in West Bengal, Kanpur in UP & Bombay in Maharashtra. Tamilnadu accounts for tanning & finishing of over 60 percent of the hides and skins available in the country and Kanpur and Calcutta together account for 20-25% and the remaining quantity is processed in different parts of the country. Kanpur by and large specializes in tanning & finishing of buffalo hide. It is the main centre for the manufacture of harness leather, role leather and other varieties of buffalo leather.
USES AND APPLICATION
TYPES OF LEATHER
CLASSIFICATION OF HIDES AND SKINS
DEVELOPMENT OF TANNERY/LEATHER INDUSTRY
SEQUENCES IN LEATHER TANNING AND DRY FINISHING PLANT
LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING PROCESS
DEFFERENT STAGES IN LEATHER TANNING
WASTE CHARACTERISTICS, POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL
LEATHER PRODUCTION PROCESSES
MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF FINISHED LEATHER
PROCESS IN DETAILS
PHYSICAL CHECK UP OF THE STOCK
CHEMICALS & THEIR COMPOSITIONS USED IN DIFFERENT SECTIONS
& OTHER OPERATIONS IN BRIEF
TANNING AND OTHER OPERATION FOR FINISHED LEATHER
DIFFERENT TREATMENT OF HIDES FOR FINISHED LEATHER
OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR CHROMETANNING
SAVING IN CHEMICALS AND WATER IN DELIMING
EFFLUENT TREATMENT IN TANNERY
FLOW DIAGRAM OF COMPLETE TANNING PROCESS
SUPPLIERS OF RAW MATERIALS
SUPPLIERS OF PLANT AND MACHINERIES
APPENDIX – A :
1. COST OF PLANT ECONOMICS
2. LAND & BUILDING
3. PLANT AND MACHINERY
4. FIXED CAPITAL INVESTMENT
5. RAW MATERIAL
6. SALARY AND WAGES
7. UTILITIES AND OVERHEADS
8. TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL
9. COST OF PRODUCTION
10. PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS
11. BREAK EVEN POINT
12. RESOURCES OF FINANCE
13. INTEREST CHART
14. DEPRECIATION CHART
15. CASH FLOW STATEMENT