TECHNOLOGY OF WATER AND PACKAGED DRINKING WATER

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This book comtains 34 chapters on various aspects on packaged drinking water and other related technilogies, i.e. Water for All, Water, Groundwater Mining, Groundwater Development in India, Freshwater Resources and Their Conjunctive Use, Technologies for Recycling of Waste Water, Recovery of Water from Domestic and Industrial Waste Water, Reverse Osmosis, Water/Effluent Treatment Plant in the Food Processing Industries, Recovery of Water From Non-Conventional Resources, Cooling Water System Management, Waste Water Use, Techniques for Water Conservation in Food and Beverage (F & B) Industry, Plastics Containers for Drinking Potable Water and Regulations, The Great Threat of Poor Quality of Counterfeiting Bottling Water, Water Treatment Using Ozone, Water Conservation by Optimizing Water Use, Non-Conventional Techniques to Remove Heavy Metals from Wastewater, Cooling Water Treatment, Role of Membrane Filtration for Industrial Water Treatment and Wastewater Reuse, Meeting Water Quality needs Through Multiple Technologies, Use of Ozone in Packaged Drinking Water Disinfection and Purification, How Safe is Bottled Water, Ozone – A Boon to Bottlers, Advances in Membrane Technology for Beverage Water Treatment, Application of Membrane Technology in Water Processing, Ozone – the 21st Century Disinfectant, Manufacturing Mineral Water i.e. Water Containing Sufficient/Required Quantity of Minerals which is Required to Human Bodies, Project Profile on Purified Bottled Water, Technology and Market Trend of Packaged Drinking Water, Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant With ISI Lab and Certification, Mineral Water Plant, Project Profile on Mineral Water, The Use of Distillation Technology in the Bottled Water Industry.

Description

Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces. Under nomenclature used to name chemical compounds, Dihydrogen monoxide is the scientific name for water, though it is almost never used. As the name implies, the mineral water is the purified water fortified with requisite amounts of minerals such as Barium, Iron, Manganese, etc. which can be absorbed by human body. It is either obtained from natural resources like spring and drilled wells or it is fortified artificially by blending and treating with mineral salts. The mineral water shall be manufactured and packed under hygienic conditions in properly washed and cleaned bottles in sterilised conditions.Unfortunately sufficient safe potable water is not available everywhere in the country, either harmful chemical substances are found in the layers of earth which enter into water or it may be contaminated due to pathogenic micro-organisms. If such water is consumed, the body suffers from water born diseases. Due to this, it has become imperative to process and bottle safe potable water for the mankind in prevailing conditions. The demand for purified water becomes more during summer season. Although few companies have already entered in the bottling of safe potable water and mineralised water, but still huge gap is there in between demand and supply at all metropolitan-cities and towns. The product is widely accepted in offices, restaurants, railway stations, airport, bus stands, hospitals and to some extent even in rich house-holds.So there is good scope for  establishing the units for processing and bottling plain and mineralised drinking water in different parts of the country.

This book comtains 34 chapters on various aspects on packaged drinking water and other related technilogies, i.e. Water for All, Water, Groundwater Mining, Groundwater Development in India, Freshwater Resources and Their Conjunctive Use, Technologies for Recycling of Waste Water, Recovery of Water from Domestic and Industrial Waste Water, Reverse Osmosis, Water/Effluent Treatment Plant in the Food Processing Industries, Recovery of Water From Non-Conventional Resources, Cooling Water System Management, Waste Water Use, Techniques for Water Conservation in Food and Beverage (F & B) Industry, Plastics Containers for Drinking Potable Water and Regulations, The Great Threat of Poor Quality of Counterfeiting Bottling Water, Water Treatment Using Ozone, Water Conservation by Optimizing Water Use, Non-Conventional Techniques to Remove Heavy Metals from Wastewater, Cooling Water Treatment, Role of Membrane Filtration for Industrial Water Treatment and Wastewater Reuse, Meeting Water Quality needs Through Multiple Technologies, Use of Ozone in Packaged Drinking Water Disinfection and Purification, How Safe is Bottled Water, Ozone – A Boon to Bottlers, Advances in Membrane Technology for Beverage Water Treatment, Application of Membrane Technology in Water Processing, Ozone – the 21st Century Disinfectant, Manufacturing Mineral Water i.e. Water Containing Sufficient/Required Quantity of Minerals which is Required to Human Bodies, Project Profile on Purified Bottled Water, Technology and Market Trend of Packaged Drinking Water, Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant With ISI Lab and Certification, Mineral Water Plant, Project Profile on Mineral Water, The Use of Distillation Technology in the Bottled Water Industry.

Contents-cum-Index

Chapter 1
WATER FOR ALL

Halving drinking water
consumption

Chapter 2
WATER

Institutions and water
policy
Water allocation systems
Property rights systems
and surface water
allocation
A “public utility” model for water allocation and pollution control
Prices and surface water allocation
Price impacts on water use
China
India
Indonesia
Coordinating groundwater extraction
Conjunctive groundwater and surface water management
Preserving water quality
The Water Sellers
Non-point pollution control options
Policy issues in irrigated agriculture
Irrigation in the 1990s and beyond
Trends in irrigated area
Crop prices and construction costs
Efficient water use at the farm level
Waterlogging, salinity and drainage
Water quality management
Small-scale water programmes
Scarce water resources management
Supporting action
Irrigation and land degradation
Irrigation: Good
government and good management
Good government and irrigation performance
Legitimacy
Accountability
Competence
Rule of law
Water user associations and NGOs
Self-financed operations
The Philippines’ Bureaucratic reform
Legal and financial status of the NIA
A gradual approach
Understanding farmers
Future directions in water management policy
The hidden treasure
What is this groundwater?

Chapter 3
GROUNDWATER MINING

Undesirable effects of overexploitation
Benefits of groundwater exploitation
Management of aquifers’ utilization
Alternatives to groundwater mining
Artificial recharge of aquifers
Reclamation and reuse of wastewater
Desalination
Weather modification
Demand modification
Conclusions

Chapter 4
GROUNDWATER DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

Introduction
Groundwater Occurrence
Water resources availability and demand
Groundwater
development
Ground water rights
Groundwater legislation
Groundwater quality
Future strategies of groundwater development
Groundwater development in water logged areas
Evaluation of deep aquifer systems
Groundwater development in the eastern parts of the country
Inter-basin water transfer
Groundwater development in drought prone areas
Groundwater-seawater interaction
Artificial recharge
Availability of funds
Water quality monitoring
Active participation of women
Conclusions

Chapter 5
FRESHWATER RESOURCES AND THEIR CONJUNCTIVE USE

Introduction
The concept of conjunctive use
Water storage
Subsurface water storage
Surface water storage
Allocation of water releases
Conjunctive use and irrigation development
Research thrust and development
Data base improvement
Modelling technology
Simulation models
Optimization models
Sustainability criteria
Spatial analysis procedures
Decision support systems
Framework for implementation of conjunctive use R & D
Institutional issues
Financial issues
Challenges for the future
Rainfall/Runoff processes and modelling
Groundwater management, monitoring and remediation
Unsaturated zone
Exchange with surface water and coupled flow
Conflict resolution in water management
Water resource management under climate change
Concluding remarks
A global perspective on water scarcity and poverty
The issue
Irrigation and poverty alleviation-past achievements
Impact of water scarcity on the poor
Emerging groundwater problem
Marginal areas
Challenge for poverty alleviation
Focus on groundwater recharge
Conjunctive use of surface and ground waters
Groundwater possibilities in India
Artificial recharge of groundwater
Research findings and latest developments

Chapter 6
TECHNOLOGIES FOR RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER

Pollution prevention in industry
Total water management approach to recycle of waste water
Guidelines for selection of recycle scheme
Recycle technologies
Effluent treatment
Tertiary treatment
Advanced treatment
Biological treatment
Clarification
Filtration
Adsorption
Membrane Bio-reactor
Ultra filtration
Nanofiltration (NF)
Reverse osmosis
Photo Chemical Oxidation (PCO)
Ion exchange process
Conclusion

Chapter 7
RECOVERY OF WATER FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER

Introduction
Water recovery and TDS management
Management of residual saline streams
Conclusion

Chapter 8
REVERSE OSMOSIS

Filtration spectrum
Membrane selection
Pre-treatment
Post-treatment
Maintenance
Energy recovery

Chapter 9
WATER/EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRIES

Introduction
Important consideration
Advantages of water/effluent treatment

Chapter 10
RECOVERY OF WATER FROM NON CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES

Background
Need for TDS management and water recovery
Technologies for treatment of salinity/TDS and water recovery
Management of residual saline streams
Observation and suggestions

Chapter 11
COOLING WATER SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

Challenges
Cooling tower
Blowdown
Factors affecting corrosion
Test control method
Microbiological problem
Chemistry
Control
Other considerations

Chapter 12
WASTE WATER USE

Planning of water services
Mapping of urban streets, collection and conveyance of liquid waters
Sewerage system
Storm water drainage
Onsite and end of pipe treatment plants
Need for master planning
Inter-linkages between roads and water related services of infrastructure
BOT projects/public private partnership model for implementation
Financial investment criteria with BOT implementation

Chapter 13
TECHNIQUES FOR WATER CONSERVATION IN FOOD AND BEVERAGE (F & B) INDUSTRY

Overview of wastewater generation
Pre-treatment of wastewater
Controlling wastewater is highly cost effective
Continuing to try new ideas
Water conservation techniques
Several opportunities in the food industry include

Chapter 14
PLASTICS CONTAINERS FOR DRINKING/POTABLE WATER AND REGULATIONS

Introduction
Materials and method
Packaging materials
Method
Results and discussion

Chapter 15
THE GREAT THREAT OF POOR QUALITY OF COUNTERFEITING BOTTLING WATER

Chapter 16
WATER TREATMENT USING OZONE

Introduction
Methods of water treatment
Advantages of OZONE over chlorine
Ozone
Ozone dose
Testing for effective disinfection
Popular ozone applications
Economic considerations

Chapter 17
WATER CONSERVATION BY OPTIMIZING WATER USE

Introduction
Water conservation opportunity in industries
Use optimization
Water recycling
External used water sources for cooling water system
Internal used water sources for cooling water systems
Scheme for selected reuse applications is presented (in flow chart)
Some Schemes for recycling of Water in CW System
Reuse of treated sewage for condenser cooling in power plant – a case study
System details
Treatment for recycling purpose
Internal treatment
Monitoring
Advantages of treatment
The treatment leads to following advantages
Efficient treatment programme
Water conservation

Chapter 18
NON-CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUES TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER

Introduction
Application Of Fly Ash
Characteristic analysis of Fly Ash
Effects Of Carbon Content On The Adsorption of Metal Ions
Coagulation With Sea Water Liquid Bittern
Membrane Techniques
Microfiltration
Reverse Osmosis
Ultrafiltration
Nanofiltration
Liquid Membranes

Chapter 19
COOLING WATER TREATMENT

Open Cooling Tower Water Balance
Cooling Water Associated Problems
Corrosion : Mechanisms, Monitoring & Control
Corrosion Mechanism
Corrosion Inhibitors
Scale
Scale Control Programs
Acid Feed
Alkaline treatment methods
Fouling
Types of Fouling
General Fouling
Fouling by corrosion products
Microbiological Fouling
Process leaks
Fouling control methods
Side stream filtration
Chemical control methods
Guidelines for C.W. Treatment Selection and Application
Instrumentation and Monitoring
Instruments
Critical Cooling Tower Variables
Water treatment monitoring software

Chapter 20
ROLE OF MEMBRANE FILTRATION FOR INDUSTRIAL WATER TREATMENT AND WASTEWATER

Reuse
Flexographic Ink
Metal Finishing
Alkali Cleaner
Chemical Mechanical Planarization
Boiler Makeup Water
Municipal Wastewater Treatment

Chapter 21
MEETING WATER QUALITY NEEDS THROUGH MULTIPLE TECHNOLOGIES

Carbon Filtration
Exhaustion
What does this have to do with treatment trains?
Carbon Filtration/RO Combo
Consult the manufacturer
Emerging Water Needs

Chapter 22
USE OF OZONE IN PACKAGED DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION AND PURIFICATION

Introduction
Ozone
Packaged Drinking Water
Ozone Treatment
Safety Aspects
Advantages of Ozone
Ozone Treatment System Design

Chapter 23
HOW SAFE IS BOTTLED WATER

Why NSF Standards

Chapter 24
OZONE – A BOON TO BOTTLERS

Production of Bottled Water
What is ozone?
Properties of Ozone
How the Ozone is made
Why Ozone for Disinfection of Water?
What is Pure & Impure Ozone?
Ozone: How Safe?
What are the major components of ozone generator?
Feed Gas Preparation System
Pressure and Flow Regulation
Ozone Production System
Process Control & Protection
Ozone Output Indicator & Controller
Cooling Arrangement
Cabinet or Enclosure
How is water ozonation carried out?
Ozonation by diffusion method
Inline Ventury Injection system
Ozone injection by Recirculation method
What should be the capacity of ozone generator in gm/hr
Factors affecting the solubility of ozone in water
Water Composition
Concentration of Ozone
Temperature of Water
Pressure
Method of Contact
How The Dissolution of Ozone Is Checked in Product Water?
Using DTP Tablets
Using ORP Indicator
If Ozone Can Be Used For Environmental SteriliZation In Filling Area?
If Ozone Can Be Used For Cip (Clean In Place) In A Packaged Water Plant?
What Care Should Be Taken While Using Ozone Generators?

Chapter 25
ADVANCES IN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY FOR BEVERAGE WATER TREATMENT

Introduction
Filtration Characteristics
System Design
Activated Carbon
Future

Chapter 26
APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY IN WATER PROCESSING

Chapter 27
OZONE – THE 21ST CENTURY DISINFECTANT

Water Purification and Disinfection
Disinfection
Tastes and odours
Colour
Turbidity
Drinking water
High purity water systems
Pharmaceuticals industries
Electronics industry
Industrial wastewater pollution control
Odour control
Cooling towers – water
Swimming pools and spas
Ozone Applications In the Food Industry
Preservation and storage
Germicidal effect
Effect on odors
Effect on metabolism
Meat
Cheese
Eggs
Beverages
Disinfection and removal of odors
Application for agriculture
Air Purification Through Ozone
Hotels and motels
Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Clinics
Vehicle restoration
Fire and restoration

Chapter 28
MANUFACTURING MINERAL WATER I.E. WATER CONTAINING SUFFICIENT/
REQUIRED QUANTITY OF MINERALS WHICH IS REQUIRED TO HUMAN BODIES

Process
Raw Water Storage
Multi Graded sand Filter
Activated Carbon Filter
Antiscalant Dosing System
Ultraviolet Disinfection System
Micron Filtration
Osmotic pressure System (High Pressure Pump)
Desalination System by Reverse Osmosis Membrane Element
Ion Controlling System
Storage of Treated Water
Fine Polishing Filtration
UV system
Ozonization
Rinsing Filling & Capping with Lable shrinking M/c
Bottle Manufacturing Machine
Reverse Osmosis Membrane Cleaning System
Packing of mineral water in Bottles, container or polypack
The Equipments in the project of packaged drinking water manufacturing unit
Following are the requirement and it is managed by the purchaser

Chapter 29
PROJECT PROFILE ON PURIFIED BOTTLED WATER

Purification of Water
Project Brief
Project Investment
Manufacturing Process
Proposed Product Mix
The Process Flow
Strategic Recommendations
Market Entry Timing
Key Success Factor
Marketing
Pricing
Product Packaging
Availability
Suitability
Hygiene
Packaging
Transportation
Marking
Sampling
Scale of Sample
Number of Test
Criteria for Conformity
Machinery and Equipment Requirements
Human Resource Requirement
Land and Building Requirements
Recommended Mode of Land Acquisition

Chapter 30
TECHNOLOGY AND MARKET TREND OF PACKAGED DRINKING WATER

Bottled Water Industry in India
Bottled water top players in India
History of Bottled water in India
Variety of packages
Artesian well water
Mineral water
Spring water
Well water
Tap Water
Why Bottled water?
Bottled Water
How Safe?
Water resources overexploited
Bottled water companies earn high profits
Plastic Bottles Pollution
Plastic Bottles requires costly Oil
The anti-bottling protests
Pro-tap water consciousness
Bottled Water law in India
Health Issue-Purity of bottled water
Traditional Indian methods of cooling and purifying water
Rainwater is safe, doesn’t bring about adverse effects
Manufacturing Process
Filtration
Desalination
Reverse Osmosis
Nanofiltration (NF)
Ultrafiltration (UF)
Microfiltration (MF)
Ultra Violet Unit (UV)
Recommended maximum concentration levels in Ultra Violet unit
Ozonation through Ozonator
What is Ozone?
Ozone Production
Rinsing, Filling and Capping Machinery
Bottle Blowing stations
Coding and Packing Machines
Water Treatment Plant
Laboratory for Water Testing
RO water Purification Plant

Chapter 31
MINERAL WATER PLANT/ PACKAGED DRINKING WATER PLANT
WITH ISI LAB AND CERTIFICATION

Mineral Water Plant/ Packaged Drinking Water Plant
Features
The Water Treatment
Plant consists of One or All of the below mentioned process
Water Storage Tank
Multi Grade Sand Filter
Activated Carbon Filter
Antiscalant Dosing System
Micron Filters
Reverse Osmosis System
Ultra Violet Sterilizer
Ozone Generator
Mineral water plant isi consultancy and laboratory setup

Chapter 32
MINERAL WATER PLANT

Introduction
Capacity
Process Flow
Machines/Equipment Offered
Purification Section
Bottle Manufacturing Section
Bottling Section

Chapter 33
PROJECT PROFILE ON MINERAL WATER

Product Description and Application
Pricing and Distribution
Plant Capacity and Production Programme
Plant Capacity
Production Programme
Materials and Inputs
Raw Materials
Utilities
Technology and Engineering Technology
Production Process
Engineering
Machinery and Equipment
Land, Buildings and Civil Works
Manpower
Requirement
Total Initial Investment Cost

Chapter 34
THE USE OF DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE BOTTLED WATER INDUSTRY

A matter of dollars and cents
Two types of systems
Part of customer awareness
Conclusion
FYI: Vapor Compression Technology

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