Manufacture Of SNACKS FOOD, NAMKEEN, PAPPAD AND POTATO PRODUCTS

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The book covers Extruded Snacks, Potato Based Textured Snacks, Health Food Snacks, Snack Food Preservation and Packaging, Details of Plant, Machinery & Equipments for Snacks Food, Instant Noodles, Namkeen Industry (Dalmoth, Chnachur & Bhujia), Namkeen and Sweets, Processed Products from Potato, Pappad & Barian Plant,  Potato Chips/Wafers, Potato Chips (Automatic Plant), with Imported  Machinery, Ready to Eat Processed Cooked Food,  Ready to Eat Moong Halwa, Panjeeri Etc, Rice Puff, Rice Flakes, Corn Flakes & Wheat Flakes,  Snack Foods, Packaging of Snack Foods, Cereal & Legume Based Foods-Raw Material, Preparation, Packaging,  Present Manufacturers of Snack food, Present Manufacturers of Potato Chips/Wafers & Namkeens, Present Manufacturers of Pappads, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Potato Chips/Wafers, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machinery of Snacks Food, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Pappad Plant, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Namkeen, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Packaging Machineries, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Raw Materials, Manufacturers/Suppliers of Packaging Materials.
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Description

MANUFACTURE OF SNACKS FOOD, NAMKEEN, PAPPAD & POTATO PRODUCTS

Extruded Snacks

  • Terminology
  • Extrusion Process
  • Extruder Configuration
  • Extruder Components
  • Extruder Configuration
  • Design
  • Die Configuration
  • Expanded Snaks
  • Fried Collettes
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Formulation
  • Baked Collettes or Shapes
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Formulations
  • Typical Second
  • Generation Snack
  • Formulaes
  • Specifications for Most
  • Commonly Used Degermed Yellow Corn Meal
  • Quality Control Considerations
  • Typical Cheese Coating Formulation
  • Third Generation Snacks
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Typical Flow for Extrusion Cooking of Third Generation Snacks
  • Formulations
  • Typical Formulation for Third Generation Snacks
  • Pre-Cooked Masa Snacks
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Typical Flow for Extrusion
  • Cooking of Pre-Cooked Masa Snacks
  • Co-Extruded Snacks
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Die Design
  • General Layout for Extrusion of Co-Extruded Tubes
  • Typical Filled Tube Die
  • Flat Bread and Cracker Snacks
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Formulation
  • Further Possibilities
  • High Moisture
  • Dough Snacks
  • Product Description
  • Process Description
  • Formulation
  • Concluding Comments

Potato based textured snacks

  • Raw Materials
  • Potato Granules
  • Potato Flakes
  • Potato Starch
  • Potato Flour
  • Methods of Manufacture
  • Forming and Frying of Wet Dough
  • High Shear Dry Extrusion
  • Low Shear Pallet Extrusion
  • Potato Chip Manufacture
  • Similar Products Using a Basis Other than Potatoes
  • Flaked Cereals
  • Puffed Cereals

Health Food Snacks

  • Shelf Life
  • Short Shelf Life Snacks
  • Savory Snacks
  • Stages in the Process of Converting Soya Beans to Tofu
  • Sweet Snacks
  • Long Shelf Life Snacks
  • Granola Bars
  • Crunchy Bars
  • Chewy Bars
  • Carob Based Snacks
  • Confectionery Bars
  • Carob Couverture
  • Fruit Bars
  • Gluten Free Snacks
  • Low Calorie Snacks
  • Diabetic Products
  • Miscellaneous

Snack Food Preservation and Packaging

  • Packaging Materials for Maintaining Product Integrity
  • Factors Responsible for Loss of Quality in Snack Food
  • Barrier Properties of Plastic Films
  • Metallized Films
  • Bags
  • Machinery
  • Computer Applications in Snack Packaging

Details of Plant, Machinery & Equipments for Snacks Food

  • Comminution & Particle Size Control
  • Comminution of Low Moisture Snack Foods or Snack Food Ingredients
  • Impact Milling or Hammer Milling
  • Comminution to Produce Suspensions & Emulsions
  • Lamination
  • Sizing & Shaping
  • Coating
  • Decorating of Snacks
  • Dewatering & Removal of Liquid Fat
  • heat Transfer
  • Mechanical  & Engineering Facets or Organoleptic Quality Control of Snacks
  • Ambience
  • Weight and/or Volume Control of Snack Foods
  • Moisture Control
  • Hygiene Control
  • Composition Control
  • Contaminant & Foreign Body Control

Instant Noodles

  • Ingredients
  • Mixing
  • Rolling and Noodle Formation
  • Steaming
  • Molding
  • Frying
  • Packing
  • Keeping Quality
  • Processing of Instant Noodles
  • Future Prospects
  • Anti Oxidants
  • Investment

Namkeen Industry (Dalmoth, Chnachur & Bhujia)

  • Manufacturing Process
  • Flavour & Essences
  • Wheat Flour Grades
  • Process Flow
  • Chart for Namkeen
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Namkeen and Sweets

  • Manufacturing Process of Namkeen
  • Flavour & Essences
  • Process Flow Chart for Namkeen -Dal
  • Wheat Flour Grades
  • Preparations of Sweets
  • Moong Dal Ladoos
  • Besan Ladoos
  • Mysore Park
  • Moong Dal Halwa
  • Rash Bara
  • Boondi Ladoos
  • Manufacture of Petha
  • Sone Papadi
  • Process of Manufacturing
  • Raw Materials
  • Manufacturing Process with Formulations of Various kinds of Ladoos
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Processed Products from Potato

  • Classification of Processed Products
  • Fried Products
  • Potato Chips
  • French Fries
  • Dehydrated Products
  • Dehydrated Potato Chips, Dices & Waris
  • Potato Flakes & Granules
  • Potato Starch
  • Potato Flour
  • Potato Custard Powder
  • Preparation
  • Soup or Gravy Thickener
  • Preparation
  • Potato Biscuits
  • Canned Potatoes

Pappad & Barian Plant

  • Process of Manufacture of Pappad
  • Formula
  • Manufacturing Process of Bariyan
  • Packaging of Pappad
  • Automatic Pappad Plant & Machinery
  • Picture of Pappad Making Machine
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Potato Chips/Waffers

  • Steps in the Process of Manufacture
  • Process of Manufacture
  • Details of Machinery
  • Pictures of Machinery used to Produce Potato Chips
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Potato Chips (Automatic Plant)with Imported Machinery

  • Packaging Requirements for Fried Potato Chips
  • Packaging Materials
  • Packaging & Storage Studies
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Chip Frying
  • Working of Imported Continuous Potato
  • Producing Unit
  • Process Flow Chart for Potato Chip Line
  • Imported Plant & Machinery
  • Description of Machinery
  • Potato Chip Line
  • Investment

Ready to Eat Processed Cooked Food

  • Ready Suji Halwa Mix
  • Ready Vegetable Pulav Mix
  • ready Khichdi Mix
  • Ready Upma Mix
  • Instant Curried Dal Mix
  • Requirements for Ready to Eat Food
  • Requirements for Ready Upma Mix
  • Requirements for Ready Khichdi Mix
  • Requirements for Instant Curried Dal Mix
  • Process of Manufacture of Ready Suji Halwa Mix
  • Manufacturing Process for Ready Vegetables Pulav Mix
  • Manufacturing Process for Ready Upma Mix
  • Process of Manufacture of Ready Khichdi Mix
  • Process of Manufacture of Instant Curried Dal Mix
  • Preparation of Vegetables for Canning
  • Out Line of the Canning Process
  • Details of Canning Ready to Eat Vegetables
  • Formulation of Curry Powder
  • Manufacturing Process of Ready to Eat Vegetables
  • Preparation of Gravy & Curry
  • Process Flow Sheet for Ready to Eat Curried Vegetables
  • Process Steps Ma Ki Dal
  • Packaging Operation of Ready to Eat Curry
  • Analysis of Norms Packing & Marking of Ready Mix Food
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Ready to Eat Moong Halwa, Panjeeri etc.

  • Requirements for Ready to Eat Moong Dal Halwa
  • Raw Materials
  • Process of Manufacture of Ready Moong Halwa
  • Formulation of Moong Dal Halwa
  • Details of Process
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Panjeeri
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Packaging of  Radiation
  • Stabilized Foods
  • Paper or Kulhar Packaging Material
  • Packaging Operation of Ready to East Food
  • Packing & Marking of Ready Food
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Rice Puff

  • Raw Materials
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Puffed Rice
  • Details of Process
  • Oven Puffed Process
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Rice Flakes, Corn Flakes & Wheat Flakes

  • Raw Materials
  • Composition of Grains
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Process Flow Sheet for Corn Flakes
  • Manufacturing Process of Wheat Flakes
  • Process Flow Diagram of Wheat Flakes
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Snack Food

  • Manufacturing Process
  • Puffing
  • Cutting
  • Roasting
  • Seasoning
  • Finishing & Drying
  • Packaging
  • Protein Snack
  • Process
  • Protein Crackers
  • Process
  • Process Details
  • Process Flow Chart for Namkeen Snacks
  • Details of Snacks Food Plant
  • Details of Plant & Machineries
  • Plant Economics
  • Land & Building
  • Plant & Machinery
  • Fixed Capital
  • Raw Materials
  • Total Working Capital
  • Total Capital Investment
  • Turn Over/Annum
  • Profit Sales Ratio
  • Rate of Return
  • Break Even Point

Packaging of Snack Foods

  • Introduction
  • The Product Group
  • Packaging Materials for Snack Foods
  • Permeability of Coextruded Opp Films to Water Vapour
  • Permeability of Coextruded Opp Films to Oxygen
  • Optical Densities of Some Coextruded Opp Films
  • Typical Water Vapour Transmission Rates & Oxygen Transmission Rates of Some Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Films Used for Snacks
  • Packaging Systems

Cereal & Legume Based Foods-Raw Material, Preparation, Packaging

  • Introduction
  • Wheat Products
  • Northern Hill Zone
  • Northern Western
  • Plains Zone
  • Northern Eastern Plains Zone
  • Central Zone
  • Peninsular Zone
  • Southern Hills Zone
  • Chapaties (Roties)
  • Packaged Chapaties for General Marketing
  • Puff & Serve Chapaties
  • Pooris
  • Parathas
  • Spiced Potato Parathas
  • Flat/Pita Bread
  • Makki Di Roti Te Sarson Da Sag
  • Manns (Sweet Roti)
  • Dalia (Porridge)
  • Karah (Halwa)
  • Instant Mix for Halwa
  • Shelf Stable Halwa
  • Choorma/Panjiri
  • Pinnis
  • Joles (Sevian)
  • Roasted Wheat/Maize
  • Fried Products
  • Golgappas (Pani Puri)
  • Mathis
  • Mattar
  • Gulabjamun/Rasgullas
  • Chaamp, Kaleji, Keema
  • Rice Products
  • Expanded Extruded
  • Snacks
  • Popcorns
  • Winter Products
  • Summer Drinks
  • Some Selected Recipes of Traditional Foods
  • Mathi
  • Matri
  • Sevian
  • Suji Halwa
  • Pinnis
  • Mall Pura
  • Gulab Jamun
  • Poories
  • Jalebi
  • Method
  • Samosa
  • Method
  • Dalia
  • Method
  • Phulavarian
  • Method
  • Rice Khichri
  • Method
  • Sweet Rice
  • Method
  • Sugarcane Juice Kheer
  • Method
  • Phirni
  • Method
  • Puffed Rice Ladoo
  • Method
  • Marunda
  • Method
  • Black Gram (Urad) Pappads
  • Method
  • Vadian
  • Besan Poora
  • Method
  • Besan Ladoos
  • Method
  • Pakoras
  • Method
  • Bhuga
  • Method
  • Seasame Gachak
  • Method
  • Chikki
  • Method
  • Chikki
  • Method
  • Gulgulas
  • Method

Present Manufacturers of Snack Food

Present Manufacturers of Potato Chips/Waffers & Namkeens

Present Manufacturers of Pappads

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant& Machineries of Potato Chips/Waffers

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Snacks Food

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Pappad Plant

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Plant & Machineries of Namkeen

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Packaging Machineries

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Raw Materials

Manufacturers/Suppliers of Packaging Materials

Few Pages of Sample Chapter

Ch1. Extruded Snacks
Consumers today are demanding an ever broadening selection of snack foods. Extrusion has provided a means
of manufacturing new and novel products and has revolutionized many conventional snack manufacturing
processes. Extrusion equipment offers many basic design advantages that result in minimizing time, energy, and
cost while at the same time introducing a degree of versatility and flexibility that was not previously available.
Many common snack foods such as fried or baked collettes (corncurls) are corn based and produced on rather
simple single-screw high pressure extrusion cookers.
Others snack products (for, example half products or third & generation products) may require more sophisticated
twin screw extrusion equipment. Snack producers today are faced with an increasing number of extrusion equipment styles and suppliers. In one respect this will complicate the snack producers choice of equipment but on the other hand will lead to a wider use of extrusion and increased availability in terms of lower cost.
The influx of the so-called “new technology” twin screw extruder in recent years will require the snack food manufacturer to acquire a better understanding of the mechanism of single and twin-screw extruders. This will increase ones ability to apply and use each of the processes for the applications in which they perform most efficiently. No individual extruder type whether single-or twin-screw, will be compatible with all specific processes and/or raw materials.

Food or snack extruders are generally divided into two major categories (1) single screw and (2) twin screw. Single
screw extruders may be divided into four subcategories low shear forming, low shear cooking, medium shear
cooking and high-shear cooking. Twin screw-extruders may be divided into several subcategories co-rotating
intermeshing; co-rotating non-intermeshing counterrotating intermeshing counter-rotating non-intermeshing
and conical intermeshing. In the past, the most popular and successful extruders in the snack food production plant
have been the single screw extruders; and there are many applications today where these extruders are ideal from
an economic point of view. However, in recent years the twin screw extruder has begun to challenge the dominance
of the single screw extruder for snack food production.
The food extruder must exercise a number of functions in a short time under controlled, continuous or steady
state operating conditions. These functions may include heating cooling, conveying, feeding, compressing, reacting,
mixing, melting, cooking, texturing and shaping. Energy sources to provide heat for cooking texturing or
melting may include.
Conversion: Mechanical energy is dissipated into the extruder in the form of heat caused by shearing or friction
generated by pumping or conveying inefficiencies. For high shear extruders it is possible that 100% of the heat may
be generated through shear. This type is referred to as an adiabatic extruder.
Conduction: Heat is transferred through the barrel of the extruder from a thermal fluid or other external source.
Convection: Heat is transferred to the extrudate by direct contact such as steam injection.
Each energy source has its advantages and disadvantages.

Ch2. Potato based Textured Snacks

The last decade has seen the continuing growth of a sector of the food industry that supplies nibble type products
sold under the general description of “savory snacks”. Manufactured for eating as alternatives to patoto chips or
nuts these snacks are made by a variety of methods. As the market expands and the consumer becomes more selective the manufacturer has to invest increasingly more time and money in product and process technology. Corn in various forms is traditionally a mainstream raw material for the production of savory snacks, but a major proportion of these tonnages is accounted for by products made from potatoes, either alone or in admixture with other root crops or cereals.

The commercial success of snack products relies very heavily upon novelty or uniqueness. The technologist seeks
to otbain this by combinations of shape and texture that are usually related. The functionality of the substrate is a
major contributor to the texture of the product and is often the primary reason for selection. In recent years the
nutritional contribution the snack may make to the total diet has started to feature and this has led to the use of a
wide range of starch, containing vegetables and legumes together with fiber from tuber and cereal sources and
vegetable protein.
In this chapter, the use of potato and other vegetables as the main structure forming materials is considered
together with the most commonly used methods for processing them into ready to eat fabricated snacks.
RAW MATERIALS
Although the processing of potato and other starch based ingredients to form textured snacks has been
carried out for many decades, difficulties are still encountered in reproducing, within a narrow range, product
textures and expansion ratios that ensure consistent quality and permit profitable manufacture of these items.
Chemical, biochemical and physical characteristics of the raw materials used, together with the process
variables, have to be considered and controlled where possible or appropriate.

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