Manufacturing Technology of Surfactants, Washing Powders, Optical Brighteners and Chelating Agents with Formulations

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The book Manufacturing Technology of Surfactants, Washing Powders, Optical Brighteners and Chelating Agents with Formulations covers Surfactants and their applications, Anionic Surfactants, Synthesis and Foaming Properties of New Anionic Surfactants, Sodium Dodecyl Isosorbide Sulfates, Nonionic Surfactants,Cationic and Amphoteric Surfactants, Inorganic Detergent Builders, Sequestrants and Chelating Agents, Bleaching Agents and Bleaching Acelerators, Optical Brighteners, Detergent Enzymes, Principles of Enzyme Analysis,Toxicology, Project Profile on Liquid Detergent, Project Profile on Detergent Powder and Cake, Composition of Soap and Detergent, Formula for Detergent cake and Powder, Formulation for Dish Washing Liquid Detergent, Formulation for Floor Cleaner, Formulation for Nerol Soap, Formulation of Detergent Cake, Formulations for Bathing Soap and Herbal Soap, Formulations of Herbal Soaps Perfumes, Hand Wash (High Foaming and Fragrance) Formulations of Liquid Hand Soap, Hand Washing Detergent Powder, Laundry and Dry Cleaners, Liquid Soap and Detergent, Manufacture of Detergent Powder with Frmulation, Manufacture of Glass Cleaner , Perfumes for Soap, Detergent and Agarbatti, Toilet Bowl Cleaner and hand Dishwasher Liquid, Toilet Soap Cake, Washing Powder and Washing Soap.

Description

SURFACTANTS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

Some example of surfactant applications in the petroleum industry
Surfactants and their solutions
Surfactant classifications
Illustration of a Gemini surfactant
Phase behaviour
Organization of surfactant molecules in a micelle
Some common CMC methods
Surfactant adsorption and surface properties
Approximate surfactant HLB values
Analysis for surfactants
Typical methods of surfactant analysis
Detergency and the displacement of dirt and oil
Ore flotation
Surfactants and detergency
Surfactant stabilized dispersions
Foams and froths
Some possible flow regimes corresponding to the use of air, mist, foam or liquid as a drilling fluid
Micro foams (colloidal gas aphrons)
Emulsions
Other surfactant applications
Surfactants in biological systems
Surfactants in health and personal care products
Sufactants in foods
Surfactants in crop protection
Surfactant toxicity and persistence
Some possible biodegradative pathways for linear alcohol ethoxylate surfactant
ANIONIC SURFACTANTS

Soaps and Other Carboxylates
Selection of different acids according to soap use
Cations
Suffonation and sulfatation
Sulfonation mechanisms
Sulfatation Mechanisms
Sulfates
Alkyl Sulfate (or better Alkyl Ester Sulfate)
Alkyl Ether Sulfates (or better Alkyl Ethoxy Ester Sulfate)
Sulfated Alkanolamides
Glyceride sulfates and other sulfates
Sulfonates
A bit of history about petroleum sulfonates
Alkyl aromatic structures found in lube oil vacuum cuts
Dodecyl benzene sulfonate and synthetic detergents
Short tail alkyl benzene sulfonates-hydrotropes
Typical Detergent Formulations
Alpha olefin sulfonates
Lignosulfonates
Sulfo carboxylic compounds
Other anionic surfactants
Orano phosphored surfactants
Sarcosides or alcyl amino acids
SYNTHESIS AND FOAMING PROPERTIES OF NEW ANIONIC SURFACTANTS SODIUM DODECYL ISOSORBIDE SULFATES

Experimental
Chemicals and general methods
The sodium dodecylisosorbide sulfate surfactants under study
Synthesis and purification of the compounds
Sodium dodecylisosorbide sulfates a and b
Sodium diethoxylated dodecyl sulfate (SLE2S)
Foaming properties
Modified Bikerman’s test
Results and discussion
Synthesis of the 5-O-dodecyl isosorbide
sulfate a and 2-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate b.
Synthetic path to the sulfated dodecylisosorbide derivatives a and b
Kraft temperature and CMC of dodecyl isosobide sulfates compared to SDS and SLE2S
Kraft temperatures, critical micelle concentrations (cmc) and ionization degrees obtained by conductimetry for the isosorbide derivatives a and b, SDS and SLE2S
Spatial conformation of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide
sulfate a (top) and 2-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate b (bottom) after geometry optimization (B3LYP/TZVP)
Conductivity as a function of concentration for 5-0-dodecyl isosorbide sulfate a (circle), SDS (triangle) and SLE2S (square) at 25 degree Centigrade
Evolution of the foam height with time during a modified Bikerman’s test
Foaming properties of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate a compared to SDS and SLE2S
Evolution of the transmitted and backscattered lights with time along the sample height
Data that can be extracted from the transmitted light signal of the turbiscan
Quantitative data for the foams generated by solutions of 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
Foamability and foam stability at three cmc
Foamability
Evolution with time of the backscattered light at the bottom of the foam for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
Evolutions of initial foam height Ho with surfactant concentration for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
Foam stability
Effect of surfactant concentration on foaming properties
Evolutions of half life time 11/2 with surfactant concentration for 5-0 dodecyl isosorbide sulfate
Conclusion
NONIONIC SURFACTANS

Types, Structures and Applications of Nonionic Surfactants
Ethoxylated Alcohols
Correlation of HLB Values & Application Range
Ethylene oxide adduct distribution of narrow range ethoxylated alcohol
Ethoxylated Alkylphenols
Ethoxylated Acids
Fatty Acid Alkanolamides
Ethoxylated Alkanolamides
Esters of Polyhydroxy Compounds
Ethoxylated Esters
Ethylene Oxide/Popylene Oxide Copolymers (POE/POP)
Alkylpolyglucosides (APGs)
Amine Ethoxylates
Amine Oxides
CATIONIC AND AMPHOTERIC SURFACTANTS

Types, Structures and Applications of Cationic Surfactants
Structures of important QAC Types
Types, Structures and Applications of Amphoteric Surfactants
Typical Formulations with Cationic Surfactants
Fabric Softeners
Structures of Important Types of Amphoteric Surfactants
Disinfecting Cleaners
Frame Formulations of Liquid Fabric Softeners
Frame Formulations of Active Matter in dryer Sheets
Frame Formulations of Liquid Detergents Containing wash Cycle softeners Based on a Nonionic/Cationic System
Frame Formulations of Various Antimicrobial Cleansers
Conditioning Hair Rinses
Frame Formulation of an Antimicrobial Manual Dishwashing Liquid
Frame Formulations of Various Conditioning Hair Rinses
Frame Formulationof a Conditioning Shampoo
Formulations Containing Amphoteric Surfactants
Spectroscopic methods
Frame Formulation of a Baby Shampoo
Frame Formulation of a Shower Gel
Infrared Spectroscopy
Frame Formulation of a Dishwashing Liquid
Characteristic IR Absorption Bands of QACs and Related Substances
Cationic Surfactants
Amphoteric Surfactants
Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance
Spectroscopy
Cationic Surfactants
Amphoteric Surfactants
Mass Spectrometry
Cationic Surfactants
Amphoteric Surfactans
INORGANIC DETERGENT BUILDERS

Carbonates and hydrogen carbonates
Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sesquicarbonate
Identification and Detection of Carbonates
Quantitative Carbonate Determination
Determination of sodium carbonate by carbon dioxide evolution method
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
Identification and Detection of Hydrogen Carbonates
Potassium Carbonate
Identification and Detection of Potassium carbonate
Determination of Potassium
Determination of potassium content by atomic absorption spectrometry
Phosphate
Identification and Detection of Phosphates
Quantitative Determination of Orthophosphate
Total Phosphate and Total Phosphorus
Determination of total phosphorus content by atomic emission sectrometry
SEQUESTRANTS AND CHELATING AGENTS

Analysis of monomeric types
Aminopolycarboxylates and Aminopolyphosphonates
Common Types of Aminopolycarboxylates
Common Types of Aminopolyphosphonates
Monomeric Polycarboxylic Acids with Sequestering Abilities
Monomeric Polycarboxylic Acids
Polymeric sequestering agents
Common Polymeric Sequestering Agents
Analysis
BLEACHING AGENTS AND BLEACHING ACCELERATORS

Bleaching Systems in Detergents
Table typical compositions of the bleach system of Powder formulations in Western Europe
N.N.NV.NV-tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
Nonanoyioxybenzene sulfonate (NOBS)
Nitriles
Pentaacetylglucose
Tetraacetylglycoluril
Diacetyldioxohexahydrotriazine (DADHT)
Reaction Mechanisms
MnTACN
Reaction mechanism of perborate
Stability of bleaching agents
Reaction mechanism of perhydrolysis
General
Analysis of persalts
Perborate and Percarbonate
Sodium perborate
Other Persalts
Analysis of bleach activators
H.N.NVNV-Tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
N.N.NV.NV tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED)
Nonanoyloxybenzenesulfonate
Perhydrolysis of NOBS
Nonanoyloxybenzene sulfonate (NOBS)
Phthalimidoperoxycaproic acid (PAP)
Others
Nitriles
Nitiles
Perhydrolyis of nitriles
Analysis of bleach catalysts
Structure
Application Fields
Identification and Quantification
Other bleaching agents
Hydrogen Peroxide
Sodium Hypochlorite
Isocyanurates and Cyanuric Acid
Determination of peroxycarboxylic acids in the presence of hydrogen peroxide
Titrimetric Methods
Gas Liquid Chromatographic Methods
Spectrophotometric Methods
Oxidation reaction of ABTS
Liquid Chromatographic Methods
Electroanalysis
OPTICAL BRIGHTENERS

Definition Optical Brighteners
Uvitex OB Absorption and Fluorescence Emission Curves
The processes involved in light absorption and fluorescence by optical brighteners
Energy Diagram of Optical Brighteners and Transitions
Types and Properties of Optical Brighteners in Laundry Detergents
DSBP type FWA
Structures of diaminostibene brighteners
Brighteners for synthetic fibers and wool
Pigments used as colorants in detergents
Anionic water soluble dyes preferably used in liquid detergents
Brightening colors in detergents
Extraction system with molecular porous regenerated cellulose (pore size 800-100 Da) in a 100-times large water bath
The chemistry of optical brighteners
Chemical Properties of Optical Brighteners
Fluorescence the Effect of Optical Brighteners
Problem due to isomerization
Methods of determination
Precautions for Analysis
Analysis of Brightening Colors
Sample Preparation Techniques
Detection Methods
Analytical Separation Techniques
Identification of Optical Brighteners
Quantitative Determination of Optical Brighteners
Conclusion
DETERGENT ENZYMES

Compositions of an enzyme detergent
Performance of enzymes in detergents
Alkaline Protease
Alkaline Cellulase
Alkaline Amylase
Materials
Alkaline Protease
Alkaline Cellulase
Alkaline Amylase
Methods
Alkaline Protease
Purification of Alkaline Protesses
Cloning and Sequencing of Gene for Alkaline Proteases
Alkaline Cellulase
Pufication of Alkaline Cellulases
Alkaline Amylase
Purification of Alkaline Amylases
Cloning Genes Encoding Alkaline Amylases
PRINCIPLES OF ENZYME ANALYSIS

Qualitative analysis of enzyme classes and types
Principles of Qualitative Enzyme Analysis
Process of enzyme analysis in detergents
Amylases
Cellulases
Lipases
Proteases
Process of Enzyme identification with protease containing products
Quantitative analysis of enzymes
Amylase
Cellulase
Release of Reducing Sugars
Decrease in Viscosity
Lipase Analysis
Chromogenic Substrates
Protease Analysis
Fluorigenic Substrates
TOXICOLOGY

Detergent Ingredients
Surfactants
Builders
Bleach Active Compounds
Auxiliary Agents
Fluorescent Whitening Agents
Finished Detergents
Conclusions
PROJECT PROFILE ON LIQUID DETERGENT

Introduction
Market Potential
Basis and presumptions
Implementation schedule
Technical aspects
Process of Manufacturing
Quality Specification
Production Capacity per annum
Motive Power 3 Phase
Total apital investments
Means of finance
Financial aspects
Fixed capital
Machinery and Equipment
Working capital
Other expenses per month
Total working capital per month
Cost of production per annum
Turnover per year
Fixed cost per year
Profit analysis
Machinery suppliers
Raw material suppliers
PROJECT PROFILE ON DETERGENT POWDER AND CAKE

Introduction
Market Potential
Basis and presumptions
Implementation schedule
Technical Aspects
Formulation of Detergent Bars/Cakes
Process Description
Quality Control and Standards
Production Capaity
Fixed Capital
Working Capital
Raw Material
Total Capital Investment
Financial Analysis
Net Profit
Profit on turnover
Total Turnover per year
Rate of Return on Total Capital Investment
Break even point
Fixed Cost
COMPOSITION OF SOAP AND DETERGENT

Composition of Household Soaps
Plant Economics of Soap and Detergent
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
FORMULA FOR DETERGENT CAKE AND POWDER

Detergent Cake Formula and its Manufacture
Plant Economics
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
FORMULATION FOR DISH WASHING LIQUID DETERGENT

Formulations
20% Liquid Detergent Paste
Plant Economics of dish washing liquid detergent sles based
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
FORMULATION FOR FLOOR CLEANER

Formulations of floor and bath room cleaners
Floor and Bathroom Cleaner
Plant Economics of Floor Cleaner (Liquid Antistatic Type)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital /Month
Total Over/Annum
FORMULATION FOR NEROL SOAP

Formulation of Nerol Soap
Plant Economics of Nerol Soap
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
FORMULATION OF DETERGENT CAKE

Formulation of Detergent Cake (Vim Type)
Plant economics of detergent cake (vim type)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
FORMULATIONS FOR BATHING SOAP AND HERBAL SOAP

Formulation for Bath soaps by Cold Process
White Bath Soap
Process
Rose Soap
Fanoy Soap
Onental Soap
Himalayan Bouquet Soap
Plant Economics of Bath Soap (Various Types)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
FORMULATIONS OF HERBAL SOAPS PERFUMES

Manufacture of Bath Soap by Remelting Process
Life boy type soap
Transparent soap
Formulations of herbal soaps perfumes
Formulation No. 1
Formulation No. 2
Process of Soapmaking
Raw Materials
Perfumes for Herbal Soaps
Soap Perfumery
Honey Soap
Orange Soap
Lemon Soap
Rose Soap
Elder flower Soap
Transparent Glycerine Soap
Perfume Formulation
Plant economics of bath soap manufacturing
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
HAND WASH (HIGH FOAMING AND FRAGRANCE) FORMULATIONS OF LIQUID HAND SOAP

Formulation
Formulation of Liquid hand wash
Plant Economics of hand wash (high foaming and fragrance)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
HAND WASHING DETERGENT POWDER

Formulation of detergent powder (low cost)
Formulation of detergent powder (medium cost)
Plant economics of hand washing detergent powder
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
LAUNDRY AND DRY CLEANERS

Process of Dry Cleaning
Wet cleaning
Laundering
Professional Cleaning Steps
Tips to Help You Get the Most from Your
Professional Cleaner
Plant economics of laundry and dry cleaning
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
LIQUID SOAP AND DETERGENT

Formulations of Soaps
Formulae of Pine Oil hand Soap
Plant Economics of Liquid Soap and Liquid Detergent
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
MANUFACTURE OF DETERGENT POWDER WITH FORMULATION

Quantitative Requirement
Plant Economics of Detergent Powder (Surf Excel and Wheel Type)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
MANUFACTURE OF GLASS CLEANER

Manufacturing Process of Cleaner (Colin Type)
Colin Type Cleaner (Formulation Process)
Process
Process flow sheet
Plant economics of cleaner (colin type)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
PERFUMES FOR SOAP DETERGENT AND AGARBATTI

Plant Economics (yara yara)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
TOILET BOWL CLEANER AND HAND DISHWASHER LIQUID

Formulation of acid toilet bowl cleaner
Plant economics of toilet bowl cleaner and hand dishwasher liquid
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
TOILET SOAP CAKE

Formulation for Bath Soaps (Toilet Soap) by Cold Process
White Soap
Process
Plant Economics of toilet soap (cake form)
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
WASHING POWDER AND WASHING SOAP

Manufacture of Detergent Cake
Process 1 Quantitative Requirement
Composition of household soaps
Plant economics of washing powder and washing soap
Plant and Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

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