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Modern Technology Of Fresh Processed Meat And Coated Poultry Products With Manufacturing Of Dried Meat Emulsions And Curing Of Poultry Products

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The book Modern Technology of Fresh Processed Meat and Coated Poultry Products with Manufacturing of Dried Meat Emulsions and Curing of Poultry Products Emulsified Products, Muscle Proteins in Poultry Products, Occupational health Hazards among Meat Plant Workers, Mechanical Separation of Poultry Meat and its Use, Assurance of Quality and Quality process Control, Cleaning and Sanitation in Meat Plants, Poultry Feed, Commercial poultry Litter having Dried Citrus Peel, Manufacturing Process of Dried Meat Emulsions, Thermal Processing and Irradiation of Meat and Meat Products, Coated Poultry Products,  Marination, Cooking, and Curing of Poultry Products,  processing Water and Wastewater Treatment, Quality of Meat, Improving the Flavor of Poultry Meat, Chicken Nuggets/Asian small scale product(Fresh processed meat product, coarse mixture), Cured Chicken Meat Cuts, Precooked Cooked Products, Plant Economics of Buffalo Meat/Frozen meat with Slaughter House, Plant Economics of Chicken meat Processing Plant, Plant Economics of Chicken/Mutton (Sheep Meat) Processing, Plant Economics of Meat Chilling Frozen Meat, Plant Economics  of Oleoresins from Chilly, Plant Economics of Soy and Gluten  Based Mock. Meat.

Description

MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH PROCESSED MEAT AND COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH MANUFACTURING OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS

PREFACE

Fresh Processed Meat comprises meat mixes composed of finely comminuted, minced or sliced muscle meat, with varying quantities of animal fat adhering to the muscle meat or added separately. Flavouring is done by adding common salt and spices, curing is not practiced. In many products other non meat ingredients are added in smaller quantities for improvement of flavour and binding, in low cost versions larger quantities are added to extend the existing volume. The characteristic of this group is that all meat and non meat ingredients are added fresh (raw), either refrigerated or non-refrigerated. The heat treatment (frying, cooking) is only applied immediately prior to consumption to make the products palatable. In many instances, the consumer cooks the products prior to serving and products are consumed hot. Most of the fresh meat mixes are filled in casings, which defines such products as sausages. If other portioning is customary, the products are known as burgers, patties, kebab, etc.

The chicken meat industry also developed new products, which contributed significantly to meeting the global increase in demand for poultry meat. These can be compared to a few examples from the red meat and fish sector, e.g. breaded and fried meat slices of pork or mutton known as Escalope or Wiener Schnitzel and in the fish sector as fish fingers. The characteristic of such products is the coating of meat surfaces with flour, fat/flour mixes and/or breadcrumbs etc. In the poultry sector, similar products include chicken nuggets (ground meat mix), chicken sticks or fingers (muscle strips) or chicken schnitzel (breast muscle slices).

After the meat or meat mix is portioned, each portion is predusted by applying a thin layer of dry flour on the meat surface. This serves to firmly absorb the batter and the breading in the following steps of the processing. Battering consist of dipping the meat pieces in a semi liquid mixture of oil, eggs, water and spices, breaking is the coating with flour, fat/flour mixes and/or breadcrumbs. The final step in this process is heat treatment to stabilize the coatings on the meat surface. This short heat treatment in hot fat/oil (approx + 175 C) as part of the processing must be seen as a pre treatment only and does not cook the product. The final heat treatment is carried out by the consumer right before eating.

In large chicken industries, the above processes have been automated by using continuous processing lines. This industrial level processing mainly focuses on comminuted and reconstitued meat parts, in some cases mechanically deboned meat (MDM) is used for cost reduction.

The book Modern Technology of Fresh Processed Meat and Coated Poultry Products with Manufacturing of Dried Meat Emulsions and Curing of Poultry products contains 24 chapter on various aspects, i.e. Emulsified Products, Muscle Proteins in Poultry Products, Occupational Health Hazards amongh Meat Plant Workers, Mechanical Separation of Poultry Meat and its Use, Assurance of Quality and Quality process Control, Cleaning and Sanitation in Meat Plants, Poultry Feed, Commercial Poultry Litter Having Dried Citrus peel, Manufacturing Process of Dried Meat Emulsions, Thermal processing and Irradiation of Meat and Meat Products, Coated Poultry Products, Marination, Cooking, and Curing of Poultry prodeucts, Processing Water and Waste water Treatment, Quality of Meat, Improving the Flavour of Poultry Meat, Chicken Nuggets/Asian small scale product (Fresh processed meat product, coarse mixture), Cured Chicken Meat Cuts, Precooked Cooked Products, Plant Economics of Buffalow Meat/Frozen Meat with Slaughter House, Plant Economics of Chicken Meat Processing Plant, Plant Economics of Chicken/Mutton (Sheep Meat) Processing, Plant Economics of Meat Chilling Frozen Meat, Plant Economics of Oleoresins from (Chilly), Plant Economics of Soy and Gluten Based Mock Meat.

EMULSIFIED PRODUCTS

Product categories
View inside a mixer/blender showing the mixing paddles
Raw materials
Raw material condition
Maximum Recommended Length of Storage of Different Specifies of Meat at Various Temperatures for the Preservation of Optimum Quality
Bowl chopper with rotating blades contained under the hooded cover at the rear of the bowl.
Fat Melting Ranges of Speciies that Might Be Incorporated into an Emulsion Product
Processing procedures
Processing defects (formed products)
Uncured Poultry Roll (Boneless Breast Fillets)
Processing phases
Cured Turkey Ham (Boneless Thigh Muscles)
Processing Procedures
Bowl chopper with rotating blades contained under the hooded cover at the rear of the bowl
Common Curred Meat Defects
Poultry Frankfurter/Bologna (Boneless Breast, Thighs, Drumstick MJeat, Mechanically Separated Poultry, Trimmings)

MUSCLE PROTEINS IN POULTRY PRODUCTS

diagram illustrating how processing conditions and ingredients affect the functional properties of muscle proteins and the resulting quality attributes of finished poultry products
Protein composition of Poultry Skeletal Muscle
Organization of skeletal muscle structure
Schematic diagram of the myosin molecule
Salt concentration affects the water binding ability of raw turkey meat batters at pH 6.0
pH affects the water binding ability of raw turkey meat batters containing 0.5M NaCl.
pH affects the extractable protein content of turkey meat batters containing 0.5 MNaCL. Water binding was defined in this study as the ability of raw meat batter to hold added water upon centrifugation.
Electron micrograph showing the protein film formed on the surface of fat dropets in a highly comminuted poultry meat batter
Diagram illustrating the steps necessary to form a heat induced protein gel and subsequent quality of cooked poultry products
Electron micrograph of a cooked chicken meat batter made with 2.5% salt
Effect of cooking temperature on the ability of ground meat to hold water added after cooking

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG MEAT PLANT WORKERS

Introduction
Injuries, Inflammation and Minor Cutaneous infections
Occupational Zoonoses Among Meat Plant Workers

MECHANICAL SEPARATION OF POULTRY MEAT AND ITS USE

Changes in labelling regulations
Use of mature fowl in baby foods
Kidney and reproductive organ removal
Bone and calcium content
Limitations on the use of mechanically separated poultry in products
Cholesterol, protein, and fat
Equipment
Example of machine for mechanical separation of poultry meat
Example of product from a modified separation
process that can be labeled as ground chicken
Types of mechanically separated poultry
Mechanical separation of poultry meat
Composition
Range of Composition of Mechanically Separated Poultry from Different Sources
Functional properties
Color and heme pigments
Flavor stability
Washing or surimi-like processing
Moisture, Fat, Protein, and Collagen Content of Raw and Cooked Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat that was washed with Selected Washing Solutions
Examples of food products made with mechanically separated poultry meat
Textural Profile Analysis values from Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat that was washed in Tap Water, Sodium Phosphate Buffer Solution, NaHCO3 Solution or Nacl Solution

ASSURANCE OF QUALITY AND QUALITY PROCESS CONTROL

Quality systems
The quality manual
Inspection systems
Process control
Current quality issues

CLEANING AND SANITATION IN MEAT PLANTS

General
Manual cleaning of working tables with brushes
Cleaning of wall with pressurized water care must be taken not to contaminate equipment
Effect of detergents (surfactants): Decrease of surface tension of water droplets and impact angle (below), dirt particles are easier loosened and removed from surface.
Foam cleaning
Disinfection techniques
Uncleaned (rinsed only) Many bacterial colonies (white spots)
After chemical cleaning Reduced numbers of bacterial colonies
After cleaning and disinfection very few bacterial colonies remaining
Effect of cleaning and disinfection on the number of bacteria image of impression plate samples taken from a meat container (plastic)
Disinfection of walls by using portable spray equipment for operator’s protection gloves and facemask are recommended
Disinfectants for the meat industry
Cleaning and disinfection plans

POULTRY FEED

Nutrient Requirements of Turkeys as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet.
Nutrient Requirements of Broilers as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet
Plasma
Materials and Methods
Nutrient Requirements of Leghorn-Type Laying Hens as Percentages or Units per Kilogram of Diet (90 percent dry matter)
Experimental treatments
Formula and nutrient analysis of diets on an as-is basis (%)
Feed manufacturing conditions of diets
Results
Least squares means of broiler performance consuming plasma in dry feed
Least squares means of body weight and survival
Materials and Methods
Experimental treatments
Results
Formula and calculated analysis of diets on an as-is basis (%)
Feed manufacturing conditions of diets

COMMERCIAL POULTRY LITTER HAVING DRIED CITRUS PEEL

A bar graph plot of test results from an efficiancy study of different litter materials on broiler performance , illustrating the percent of birds with carcass Grade A rating and the percent of birds without foot pad lesions or without breast blisters
A bar graph plot of data of foot pad scores from a poultry litter efficancy study
A bar graph plot of breast blister scores from the poultry litter efficacy study.
A plot of short term average bird weight and adjusted feed conversion data from an initial period of the litter material efficancy study.
Carcass Quality Results
Feed Conversion Results
Foot Pad Lesion Scores
Performance Data for Birds at 16 Days of Age
Analyses of Soiled Poultry Litter
Ammonia Levels
Coliform Counts
Nutrient and Nitrogen
Analysis

MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF DRIED MEAT EMULSIONS

Operational Example
A block diagram flow sheet illustrating the method of this method
A diagrqammaticillustration of an apparatus which may be used for forming the emulsion into a dried sheet product.
A comparative graph showing the effect of pH adjustment on vanation of moisture content with drying time for beef emulsion prepared with 1% salt and 10% added water.
A comparative graph showing the effect of water and fat addition to beef emulsion adjusted to pH 7.0 with KOH and 1% added salt on fat retentionin the dried product
Experimental Exakmples
Effect of pH and slat addition on final moisture content
Effect of pH on fat content of dehydrated beef
Effect of amount of water added to beef emulsion at pH 7 on fat content of dehydrated product andtexture of rehydrated meat

THERMAL PROCESSING AND IRRADIATION OF MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

Introduction
Thermal Processing
Types of Thermal Processing
Irradiation
The currently accepted
irradiation doses by the PDA

COATED POULTRY PRODUCTS

Forming the product
Cut nuggets showing color and texture differences
Poultry Meat Content standards for certain Poultry Products
Prepare formulation
Flow diagram of coated poultry nugget and/or patty production
Formax F.200 forming machine
Formax forming machine mold plate
Formax F conveyor with Port fill
Formax F Conveyor with Poultry Plus
Nuggets in various shapes and colors
Formed chicken breast patties in two different shapes
Drum breader
Sprinkle applicator for predust
Batter application top submersion system
Batter application overflow system
Batter application on chicken system
Breader application
Breader application on battered chicken wings
Breader application Japanese bread crumbs
Diagram of an inline fryer
Diagram of extracted protein fibers and gelation bonds formed during cooking
Freezing and packaging
Diagram of the oxidation of unsaturated fats

MARINATION, COOKING, AND CURING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS

Introduction
Marination
Broiler market, percentage of product sold
domestically as marinated, unmarinated or mixed
Marination techniques
Vacuum blender used for mixing marinade and other ingredients with smaller particles of meat
Vacuum tumbler (in unloading position showing internal paddies) used for mixing marinade and other ingredients with larger meat particles or whole muscles
Injector showing conveyor belt full of whole breast muscles passing through injecting cabinet
Cooking
Stein JSO-IV in line Oven
Stein GCO Spiral Oven
Stein TFF-II Fryer, with top raised
Curing
Quality characteristics from meat curing reactions
Nitric oxide(NO) reaction pathway from fresh meat pigments to form curred meat pigments leading to the final cooked pigment form known as nitrosythemochrome
Reaction sequence from either sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite leading to the formation of nitric oxide (NO)
ALKAR batch oven with DDC computer controls for cooking and smoking of poultry products
ALKAR inline continuous cook/chill system with flow through processing for frankfurters or wieners

PROCESSING WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT

Wastewater analytical measurements
Wastewater trteatment
Processing plant discharging into a municipal system (POTW, publicity owned treatment works)
Processing plant dischargeing to stream
Processing plant using land application
Average Concentration of Contaminants in Broiler Processing Wastewater Biochemical

QUALITY OF MEAT

Sensory quality attributes
Evaluating food with the five senses
Sample presentations and preparation
Sensory evaluation laboratory floor plan
Specific sensory test formats
Other profiling methods
Rating scales
Instrumental methods of analysis
Selected texture instrumental methods
Warner Bratzler shearing device
Warner Bratzler shear cell for an Instron UTM
Allow Kramer shear cell for an instron UTM
A typical texture profile analysis (TPA) curve pattern for chicken meat
Relationships between instrumental procedures and sensory panels for texture
Diagram of scheme to sample individual cooked breast muscle for sensory and instrumental tests
Instrumental Shear Values Corresponding to Sensory Tenderness Categories
Descriptive Texture Attributes and Definitions Used to Evaluate Intact Broiler Muscle
Spider web diagram of sensory evaluation of mechanically debonded broiler meat (MDBM ) and hand deboned fowl meat (HDFM)
A colorimeter being used to determine the numeric color value of a broiler breast fillet
Terms used for profiling the taste and Aroma of fresh and Reheated Chicken Meat

IMPROVING THE FLAVOR OF POULTRY MEAT

Cooked Ham/Entire muscle pieces formed together
Chicken Meat Bails

PRECOOKED COOKED PRODUCTS

Corned Chicken (traditional method, South America)

PLANT ECONOMICS OF BUFFALOW MEAT/FROZEN MEAN WITH SLAUGHTER HOUSE

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF CHICKEN MEAT PROCESSING PLANT

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
PLANT ECONOMICS OF CHICKEN/MUTTON (SHEEP MEAT) PROCESSING

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum

PLANT ECONOMICS OF MEAT CHILLING FROZEN MEAT

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
PLANT ECONOMICS OF OLEORESINS FROM CHILLY

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum
PLANT ECONOMICS OF SOY AND GLUTEN BASED MOCK

Plant & Machinery
Fixed Capital
Raw Materials
Total Working Capital/Month
Total Capital Investment
Turn Over/Annum