ZINC CHLORIDE (ZnCl2)

Zinc chloride is one of the important zinc componds. It is stable in the vapour phase upto 900oC. It is very hygroscopic, extremely  water soluble, and soluble in organic liquids such  as alcohols, esters, ketones,ethers, amides and mitrictes.  Hydrates with  1,  1.5,  2.5,  3,  and 4  molecules  of  water  have  been identified and great care must be expressed to avoid hydration of the anhydrous form.

Aqueous  solution of zinc chloride are  acidic  (pH=1.O for  6  m ),and when partially neutralized form  slighly  soluble basic chlorides eg. Zncl2 and 4 Zn( ch)2 and Zn(ch)cl  many other basic chlorides have been reported.

Zinc  Chloride (Zn Cl2) is available as  white,  crystalline powder, odourless, moulded in pencils or porcelains like mass.

Zinc -Chloride

Zinc Chloride is obtained by heating zinc with dry  chlorine gas,  by  the action of hydrochloric acid on Zinc  Oxide,  or  by heating a mixture of Zinc Sulphate and Sodium Chloride.

It is economical to manufacture zinc chloride from secondary Zinc sources as Zinc dross, sal skimming, etc. The zinc dross is treated with some what less than required quantity of hydrochloric acid and the clear liquid is filtered off. The oxides dross residue is then treated with chlorine and the resultant zinc chloride is leached off and added to the first filtrate. The clear liquid is evaporated to the desired stage.

Zinc chloride is an industrially important compound of Zinc. In aqueous solution, it may be used alone or in combination  with phenol  or  sodium chromate as a wood  preservative  for  railway sleepers  poles  for  communication  lines,  etc.  and  for  fire proofing timber.

Zinc Chloride (CAS. 7646-85-7) has formula Zncl2 zinc chloride melts at 2750C and boils at 7200C.

Among the forms of zinc chloride are zinc chloride 47.4 wt % (sp.gr.1.53) solution and solid form produced by further evaporations until upon cooling, an almost anhydrous salt crystallizers. The solid is sometimes sold in fused form. The fumes of zinc chloride are highly toxic and can damage mucous membrane and cause pall grey cyntion. It can also ulerate the skin of workers using it is a soldering flux or those handling wood impregnated with it.

Zinc Chloride (ZnCl2 2 H2O) is usually in the form of  white granular  deliquent  crystals or crystalline powder.  It  is  not easily   obtained   in  anhydrous  form  but   usually   contains approximately  5%  water.

The major zinc chemicals of commercial importance: zinc oxide (accounting for 62% of the market for the three chemicals), zinc sulfate (33%), and zinc chloride (5%). The major market segments for zinc chemicals include rubber compounding, agriculture, and ceramics.

Uses of zinc chloride:

  • as an electrolyte in the production of dry galvanic cells
  • in surface treatment of metals for preparation of melting baths (fluxes), especially in hot-dip galvanizing and electroplating
  • in chemical syntheses, production of soldering pastes and solutions, tin coating and production of ion exchangers

Global Zinc Chemicals Market stood at nearly USD7.90 Billion in 2017 and is anticipated to grow at a steady rate, witnessing CAGR of 4.89% during the forecast period, reaching USD12.92 Billion through 2027. The growth in the Global Zinc Chemicals Market can be attributed to the versatile applications of zinc derivatives in several industries. Moreover, the ongoing M&A activities among industry behemoths such as Zinc Oxide L.L.C. and Zochem Inc. would further cater to the growth in Global Zinc Chemicals Market at a modest pace, during the forecast period.

Zinc chemicals continue to show growth in the area of fertilizers, animal feed, and food consumption. As more than 50% of the soils in the world are considered to be zinc-deficient and with the population having doubled in the past 30 years and projected to increase from 7 billion to over 9 billion by 2050, and arable land per person declining, crop yields must increase. In many studies, including projects in Brazil, China, India, and Turkey, agricultural yields were increased by adding zinc to standard fertilizers and premixes. In addition, various organizations and businesses alike have begun to emphasize the benefits of zinc used in food and nutritional supplements.

Process:

Anhydrous zinc chloride can be made from the reaction of the metal   with chloride or hydrogen chloride. It is usually made commercially by the reaction of aqueous hydrochloric acid with scrap zinc materials or roasted ore, ie. crude zinc oxide.

The solution of zinc chloride is purified in various ways depending upon the impurities present.

For  example,  iron  and  manganese  precipitate  after   partial neutralization with zinc oxide or other alkali and oxidation with chlorine  or sodium hypochlorite, heavy metals are  removed  with zinc  powder,  the  solution  is  concentrated  by  boiling,  and hydrochloride  acid  is added to prevent the formation  of  basic chlorides,  zinc  chloride is usually sold as a 47.4  Wt%  (1.53) solution,  but  is  also  produced in solid  form  by   further evaporation  until, upon looking, an anhydrous salt  crystallizes the solid is sometimes sold in fused form.

Zinc  chloride can be prepared by several methods,  although zinc  chloride can be prepared by passing chloride gas  over  red hot zinc or zinc oxide, or by the action of hydrochloric acid  on zinc or spelter (98-99% Zinc) or Zinc oxide it is more economical to produce it from secondary zinc sources such as Zinc scrap from sheet  cutting,  zinc  anodes, old zinc roofings  and  zinc  die, casting  or  from zinc rich residues in  manufacturing  processes such as galvanizing. In India the most common raw materials  used in  the manufacture of zinc dross (92-94% zinc) Zinc ash  (60-65% Zinc) and  zinc skimmings (40-45% Zinc) which are  obtained  from galvanizing industry.

The following pie chart shows world consumption of zinc chemicals by end use:

pie chart shows world consumption of zinc chemicals

Global Zinc Chemicals Market stood at nearly USD7.90 Billion in 2017 and is anticipated to grow at a steady rate, witnessing CAGR of 4.89% during the forecast period, reaching USD12.92 Billion through 2027. The growth in the Global Zinc Chemicals Market can be attributed to the versatile applications of zinc derivatives in several industries. Moreover, the ongoing M&A activities among industry behemoths such as Zinc Oxide L.L.C. and Zochem Inc. would further cater to the growth in Global Zinc Chemicals Market at a modest pace, during the forecast period.

Global Zinc Chemicals market is controlled by these major players, namely– U.S. Zinc (US), GHC (Canada), Akrochem (US), BruggemannChemical (Germany) Weifang Longda Zinc Industry Co., Ltd. (China), HakusuiTech Co, Ltd. (Japan), Zinc Oxide LLC (US), etc.

Zinc-Chemicals-market

Zinc Chloride unit may be set up in Rs. 1.40 Cr. (machinery cost) for 20 TPD plant, Machinery are fluently available in India and there is a huge demand of this product.Raw material Zinc ash is also available in India. Land area is required 4000 sq. mtr for 20 TPD. Production. Rate of Return : 30%. For more details and project report contact at : eiri@eiriindia.org or www.eiriindia.org Help: +91 9811437895. Tentative contents of the project report are:

  • Introduction
  • Properties
  • Specification Of Zinc Ash
  • Specifications And Terms In Brief
  • Specifications & Grades Of Zinc Chloride
  • Typical Specification Of Zinc Chloride Solution Lye Or Brine
  • Bis Specification For Zinc Chloride
  • Grades
  • Hazards
  • Scope
  • Grades
  • Packing And Marking
  • Table I Requirements For Zinc Chloride, Solid
  • Sampling
  • Determination Of Total Ammonia
  • Reagents
  • Procedure
  • Calculation
  • Where
  • For Flux Grade
  • Determination Of Alkalis And Alkaline Earths
  • Calculation
  • Where
  • Test For Alkalinity
  • Reagents
  • Test For Heavy Metals
  • Procedure
  • Test For Nitrates
  • Reagents
  • Determination Of Sulphates
  • Reagents
  • Calculation
  • Where
  • Test For Iron
  • Apparatus
  • Reagents
  • Procedure
  • Scale Of Sampling
  • Container And Regulations
  • Uses And Applications
  • Application:
  • Zinc Chloride As Grignard Catalyst
  • Zinc Chloride As A Germicide
  • Zinc Chloride As A Drying Agent
  • Zinc Chloride In Lead Dezincing
  • Chlorine Dezincing
  • Zinc Chloride As Coal Hydrogenation Catalyst
  • Zinc Chloride In Polyester Manufacturing
  • Zinc Chloride In Fluxes With Khf2
  • As A Metallurgical Flux
  • In Textile And Paper Processing
  • Smoke Grenades
  • Fingerprint Detection
  • Disinfectant
  • Skin Cancer Treatment
  • Safety
  • Structure And Properties
  • Market Survey
  • Import Data Of Zinc Chloride
  • Export Data Of Zinc Chloride
  • Market Survey (Global)
  • Production And Preparation Of Zinc Chloride
  • Production And Preparation
  • Manufacturers/Suppliers Of Zinc Chloride
  • Manufacturing Process
  • Reaction & Material Requirement
  • Reaction
  • Process
  • Manufacture Of Zinc Chloride From Zinc Metal
  • Process
  • Purification
  • Equipment Required
  • Discription Of Equipments Used In The Process  Leaching Tank
  • Filter Process
  • Evaporalor
  • Continuous Tunnels
  • Process Flow Diagram
  • Material Safety Data Sheet Zinc Chloride
  • Chemical Product And Company Identification
  • Composition And Information On Ingredients
  • Hazards Identification
  • First Aid Measures
  • Fire And Explosion Data
  • Accidental Release Measures
  • Handling And Storage
  • Exposure Controls/Personal Protection
  • Physical And Chemical Properties
  • Stability And Reactivity Data
  • Toxicological Information
  • Ecological Information
  • Disposal Considerations
  • Plant Layout
  • Suppliers Of Raw Materials
  • Suppliers Of Plant And Machinery

Appendix – A:

  1.   Cost Of Plant Economics
  2.   Land & Building
  3.   Plant And Machinery
  4.   Fixed Capital Investment
  5.   Raw Material
  6.   Salary And Wages
  7.   Utilities And Overheads
  8.   Total Working Capital
  9.   Cost Of Production
  10. Profitability Analysis
  11. Break Even Point
  12. Resources Of Finance
  13. Interest Chart
  14. Depreciation Chart
  15. Cash Flow Statement
  16. Projected Balance Sheet

 

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